Outstanding Universal Value PAMUKKALE
Deriving from springs in a cliff almost 200 m high overlooking the plain of Curuksu in south-west Turkey. Actually, calcite-laden waters have created an amazing landscape, made up of mineral forests, petrified waterfalls and a series of terraced basins given the name of Pamukkale (Cotton Castle). It has located in the province of Denizli,Turkey. Therefore, this extraordinary landscape was a focus of interest for visitors to the nearby Hellenistic spa town of Hierapolis. Attalid Kings of Pergamon had founded this Spa city Hierapolis at the end of the 2nd century B.C., at the site of an ancient cult.
Also, They had used its hot springs for scouring and drying wool. Ceded to Rome in 133 B.C., Hierapolis flourished, reaching its peak of importance in the 2nd and 3rd centuries A.D.. And then it had been destroyed by an earthquake in 60 A.D. and rebuilt. Fortunately, remains of the Greco-Roman period include baths, temple ruins, a monumental arch, a nymphaeum, a huge necropolis and a theatre. By the way, the town had become a bishopric, after acceptance of Christianity by the emperor Constantine and his establishment of Constantinople as the ‘new Rome’ in 330 A.D., As the place of St. Philip’s martyrdom in 80 A.D., commemorated by his Martyrium building in the 5th century. Hierapolis ancient city with its several churches had become an important religious center for the Eastern Roman Empire.
The combination of striking natural formations and the development of a complex system of canals, bringing the thermal water to nearby villages and fields, has been exceptional. The springs are the source of a hydraulic system extending 70 km northwest to Alasehir and westwards along the valley of the Menderes River. Pamukkale forms an important backdrop to the original Greco-Roman town of Hierapolis and the cultural landscape which dominates the area.
Ancient city of Hierapolis is an exceptional example of a Greco-Roman thermal installation established on an extraordinary natural site. They had exploited the therapeutic virtues of the waters at the various thermal installations. Also they had included immense hot basins and pools for swimming. Hydrotherapy had been accompanied by religious practices, which developed in relation to local cults. The Temple of Apollo has includesd several Chtonian divinities. and it was erected on a geological fault from which noxious vapors escaped. The theatre dates from the time of Severus. And it is decorated with an admirable frieze depicting a ritual procession and a sacrifice to the Ephesian Artemis. The necropolis (ancient cemetery), which extends over 2 km, has afforded a vast panorama of the funerary practices of the Greco-Roman era.
How to Get There
This Calcium Terraces with hot spring water Called Pamukkale(Means Cotton Castle in English). It is in the list of UNESCO World Heritage and can be reached easily. There are many daily domestic flights from Istanbul to Denizli Airport every day. And it takes around an hour driving there. Also Long distance buses from different cities to here run regularly. But Flight is the easiest and fastest to get there.
When to Visit
Pamukkale has been settled on a high dry plateau in the middle west of Turkey. It has hot dry summers and cold snowy winters. It has high season the all year round with many visitors from all over the world.
How to Visit
Attending group tours or customized tours with private guide with van are the best choices to understand the region. It is a huge valley with white calcium terraces. Also It is advised to swim in an ancient swimming pool among the ancient columns laying down called Cleopatra’s pool. The most important places to visit there are calcium terraces, Cleopatra’s pool, Hierapolis Ancient City, Also Kaklık Cave worth seeing.
Hot-Air Ballooning has become very famous attraction in Pamukkale. It is advised doing this activity during the sun rising. It has to be booked from very well-known companies who are really professional in Hot air ballooning for safety.